Data exchange agreements are formal contracts detailing the data disclosed and the data used for the data. Data exchange agreements must include access and dissemination provisions. It is not advisable to enter into a data exchange agreement in which data protection information can be disclosed, as non-federal organizations are not subject to the Data Protection Act. Similarly, the non-federal organization should be advised that federal authorities may be required to disclose information under the BLA. The manual chapter of the USGS Survey 500.26 – Domestic Memorandum of Understanding states: “If necessary, languages are included [in MOUs] such as: All data and information generated as a result of this agreement must be made available to the USGS as part of its current programmes. This includes, if necessary, the publication of the results, unless it is prohibited for well-founded protection and security reasons. If the partner is a foreign unit that does not accept compliance with U.S. law, the agreements must go through the USGS Office of International Programs. The USGS must not share or exchange records or data that: Access rules: Whether the data is online or not, the agreement must define who has what rights to access the data, who has what right to modify or modify the data, and what methods of accessing the data. “One of the challenges of the territorial community is to promote data exchange and cooperation between several agencies and organizations at several levels of public, private and associative organizations. The interchangeable and successfully collaborating field of interchangeable data is based on the adoption of guiding principles, the identification of best practices and the recognition of challenges that may include political, scientific and technological issues. (National Geospatial Advisory Committee, 2011) Confidentiality and disclaimers: there must be a disclaimer covering the accuracy of the data, as well as a description of the data and related metadata.
In addition, a declaration regarding the disclosure of information to third parties is required. This is necessary because a non-federal authority may not be able to protect USGS information from disclosure, and vice versa, because USGS may be forced to disclose information as part of a foia request if no waiver applies.